Bird Friendly Glass

Glass structures are responsible for the loss of an estimated one billion birds every year in North America. The American Bird Conservancy describes the problem as one of the most costly to the bird population. Incorporating a bird-friendly design in building development can save the lives of hundreds of millions of birds each year. Since birds cannot identify glass as a solid object, Goldray Glass has developed solutions for sustainable glass options to reduce bird casualties. These options have a very minimal impact on visible light transmission as well as promoting energy efficiency and the safety of birds.

According to a study conducted by the American Bird Conservancy using tunnel testing, it was concluded that the most effective way to minimize bird strikes with glass is to apply a pattern to the exterior surface (surface 1). Applying a pattern to the first surface of the glass on a building provides “visual noise,” which prevents birds from flying into the glass. Goldray glass integrates these visual markers on the exterior surface of the glass by applying patterns with acid etch, silkscreened ceramic frit or a digital print.

Studies indicate that patterns covering as little as 5% of the total glass surface can deter 90% of bird strikes under experimental conditions. According to new CSA standards, there shall be no more than 50mm vertically and horizontally between visual markers. The visual markers shall be a minimum of 4mm in diameter for individual elements and 2mm wide by 8mm long for linear elements.

Bird-Friendly Glass is typically used in exterior applications where bird safety is a concern, including curtain walls, vision, spandrel panels, shading fins, and exterior railings.


  • Cost-effective & low-maintenance.
  • Highly durable, long-lasting, and abrasion-resistant.
  • Available in laminated or monolithic form.

Product Specifications


Glass Thickness:
Any combination of flat glass 3mm (1/8") to 19mm (3/4").
Large selection of in-house patterns and a comprehensive graphics lab for creating custom patterns.
Goldray's First Surface Ceramic Frit is available in many standard and custom colors.
Pattern is required to be on the exterior surface of the glass to deter collision effectively.
Heat Treating:
This product is available on either fully tempered glass in thicknesses of 4mm (1/8") to 19mm (3/4") or heat strengthened glass in thicknesses of 3mm (1/8") to 10mm (3/8").
Standard edgework for Bird Friendly Glass is a seamed edge. Flat polished or flat ground edges are also available.
Fabrication for installation and hardware is available. See Goldray's Fabrication Limitations for more information.

Technical Data

Film Thickness:
~15 microns
Acid Resistance:
20-hour Sulphuric Acid produces slight iridescence.
Alkali Resistance:
<.10 weight loss
3 Year Exterior Exposure:
No Visible Attack
Heavy Metal Release:
Average Opacity:
Varies upon pattern and application

Applicable Industry Standards

ASTM C1036
Standard Specification for Flat Glass
ASTM C1048
Standard Specification for Heat-Treated Flat Glass-Kind HS, Kind FT Coated and Uncoated Glass
ASTM C1172
Standard Specification for Laminated Architectural Flat Glass
Standard Test Method for Acid Resistance of Ceramic Decoration on Architectural-Type Glass

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